University of L'Aquila
Institute of Atmospheric Science and Climate (ISAC) 
Earth Observation Group Remote Sensing, Radiopropagation and Antennas Electromagnetics and radar meteorology Laurea Magistrale (Master Sc.) in Atmopsheric Science and Technology Year 1, First semester (SepDec.) Teachers: Prof. Frank Silvio Marzano Dr. Mario Montopoli Meeting: Wednesday h. 15:00 Dept. Information Eng.  Fac. of Engineering I3S Via Eudosssiana 18, III piano, room n. 306, Tel. 06.44585847 
PROGRAM AND OBJECTIVES
The 3 credits (CFU) of Electromagnetics fundamentals are organized
into 5 sessions that include theoretical teaching and practical exercises. The
module will cover the following aspects: A1. ELECTROMAGNETICS FUNDAMENTALS Introduction to electromagnetics: Properties of the differential operators.
Solenoidal and irrotational fields. Fundamental Theorems of Vector Analysis.
Maxwell’s Equations and Continuity Conditions. Properties: Duality Principle and Impressed Sources. Constitutive
Relations. A2. THEOREMS AND WAVE EQUATION Maxwell’s Equations: Complex notation and equations. Constitutive
relations in frequency. Dispersive media. Poynting’s theorem. uniqueness
theorem. Electromagnetic wave equation:
Helmholtz equation. Electromagnetic potentials. A3. ELECTROMAGNETIC PLANE WAVES Plane waves: Wave functions. Plane wave solutions. General properties of plane
waves. Spectrum of plane waves. Nonmonochromatic plane waves. Reflection and transmission of plane waves:
Normal incidence. Oblique Incidence. Snell’s law. Fresnel’s coefficients. Total
reflection. Leontovich’s condition. A4. ELECTROMAGNETIC MATERIALS Permittivity in the spectral domain: Nonpolar nonconducting materials and the
Lorenz model. Polar materials and the Debye model. Conducting materials.
Permittivity vs. conductivity. Permittivity
of terrestrial materials: The atmosphere. Water and ice. Vegetal tissues.
Soil. The ionosphere. A5. ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION AND SCATTERING Electromagnetic radiation: Impulse response of free space: The scalar
Green’s function. Doppler effect. Wave Interference. Field of Point Source. Radiated field: Field of finitedimension
sources. The far field. Radiation parameters. Reciprocity and equivalence. Scatter modeling: scattering source. scattered
field. scattering matrix. Müller matrix. Scattered power. Transverse sections.
The backscattering coefficient. Antennas:
Radiating Antennas: Directivity and Reaction. Receiving antennas: Aperture efficiency
and effective Area. Directional properties of apertures. The 3 credit (CFU) radar meteorology module is organized into 5
sessions that include theoretical teaching and practical exercise. An external
visit to the ISACCNR radar hardware in Rome could be planned according to time
availability and permissions. The module will cover the following aspects: B1. RADAR METEOROLOGY INTRODUCTION Introduction: Radar principle, advantage and concepts of microwave remote
sensing, summary of microwave sensor typology History of radar. Examples: Weather radars at the ground,
on air and space platforms, the electromagnetic spectrum, frequency selection
for weather radars. B2. RADAR MEASUREMENT PRINCIPLES Geometrical characteristics of radar observation: Range resolution, radar antenna features,
cross resolution, geometry of acquisition. Radar ray paths: Ray
propagation in the vacuum and in stratified atmosphere, anomalous propagation. Radar
equation: Particle’s scattering cross section, radar equation for single
and multiple target targets, particle size distribution, Reflectivity and
equivalent reflectivity factor, validity of Rayleigh approximation, minimum
detectable reflectivity. B3. RADAR SYSTEMS Doppler radars: Radial
velocity, Doppler spectrum, moments of Doppler spectrum, Velocity Ambiguity,
Dilemma Doppler, radar signal processing (autocorrelation function), coherency
time of the received signal. B6. Dual polarization radars. Polarimetry,
Scattering Matrix, Radar system configurations, differential reflectivity,
linear depolarization ratio, propagation differential phase, correlation
coefficient. B4 GROUNDBASED RADAR APPLICATIONS Attenuation effects of weather radar signal: Path attenuation, Attenuation compensation
algorithms. Radar calibration: Calibration techniques, ground clutter,
radio frequency interference. Radar applications: Rain Estimation,
Hydrometer Classification, Zdr columns, Radar and lightings. B5. SPACEBASED RADAR APPLICATIONS. Estimates from microwave radar and radiometer satellite sensors: Algorithm for precipitation estimation from
satellite. Application: use of products from GPM and Eumetsat missions. EXAM PROCEDURES
